The moths eye is considerably less reflective than most nocturnal animals. It is composed of arrays of microscopic bumps that are arranged in hexagonal patterns. The bumps are 'smaller than the wavelength of visible light' states Peng Jiang, an assistant professor of chemical engineering at the University of Florida, USA.

"Jiang said engineers have sought to replicate the eyes’ microscopic structure using a printing technique called lithography, but it is expensive and ill-suited to creating the extremely tiny rows of protrusions that make the moth eyes so effective. To get around this problem, Jiang developed a non-lithographic technique, called spin coating. Unlike lithography, which attempts to carve out the nipple-like pattern on the target surface, spin coating seeks to build the pattern up from scratch on the target. Jiang places a liquid suspension of nanoparticles on a circular silicon wafer, such as

that used in photovoltaic cells. A motor spins the wafer, with centrifugal force distributing the liquid. When it dries, it leaves behind the ordered particles in place."

These microscopic bumps provide an anti-reflective coating that has the potential to improve the performance of solar cells by increasing the quantity of light absorbed by the cell. "Current production coatings reflect more than 10 percent of the light at certain wavelengths, whereas Jiang says his coating reflects less than 2 percent at those wavelength."

Information sourced from The Univeristy of Florida - Aaron Hoover.